Latin marginalia : Qualiter corpus predicte defuncte super litus apud Ephesim quidam medicus nomine Cerymon cum aliquibus suis discipulis inuenit; quod in hospicium suum portans et extra cistam ponens, spiraculo vite in ea adhuc inuento, ipsam plene sanitati restituit. Variation of Whiting G Macaulay notes : "In the original it is not Cerimon himself, but a young disciple of his, who discovers the signs of life and takes measures for restoring her. She has already been laid upon the pyre, and he by carefully lighting the four corners of it cp. Then he takes her in and warms her with wool steeped in hot oil.
Latin marginalia : Qualiter vxor Appolini sanata domum religionis peciit, vbi sacro velamine munita castam omni tempore se vouit. Macaulay observes that the daughter is apparently Gower's invention, perhaps the result of his misreading of the original "adhibitis amicis filiam sibi adoptauit," that is, in the company of friends he adopted her as his daughter Latin marginalia : Qualiter Appolinus Tharsim nauigans, filiam suam Thaisim Strangulioni et Dionisie vxori sue educandam commendauit; et deinde Tyrum adiit, vbi cum inestimabili gaudio a suis receptus est.
Tharsia in the source, bearing the name of the city. Latin marginalia : Qualiter Thaysis vna cum Philotenna Strangulionis et Dionisie filia omnis sciencie et honestatis doctrina imbuta est: set Thaisis Philotennam precellens in odium mortale per inuidiam a Dionisia recollecta est. Macaulay observes: "Much is made in the original story of the death of this nurse and of the revelation which she made to Tharsia of her real parentage.
Up to this time she had supposed herself to be the daughter of Strangulio. The nurse suspected some evil, and advised Tharsia, if her supposed parents dealt ill with her, to go and take hold of the statue of her father in the market-place and appeal to the citizens for help.
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After her death Tharsia visited her tomb by the sea-shore every day, 'et ibi manes parentum suorum inuocabat' [and there she would invoke the ancestral gods of her parents]. Here Theophilus lay in wait for her by order of Dionysiades" Latin marginalia : Qualiter Dionisia Thaysim, vt occideretur, Theophilo seruo suo tradidit, qui cum noctanter longius ab vrbe ipsam prope litus maris interficere proposuerat, Pirate ibidem prope latitantes Thaisim de manu Carnificis eripuerunt, ipsamque vsque Ciuitatem Mitelenam ducentes, cuidam Leonino scortorum ibidem magistro vendiderunt.
When he had sought to kill her at night along the shore very far from town, pirates hiding near there snatched Thaisis from the executioner's hand, and leading her up to the city Mitelene, they sold her to a certain Leonine, a master of prostitutes there.
Latin marginalia : Qualiter Leoninus Thaisim ad lupanar destinauit, vbi dei gracia preuenta ipsius virginitatem nullus violare potuit. Latin marginalia : Qualiter Thaisis a lupanari virgo liberata, inter sacras mulieres hospicium habens, sciencias quibus edocta fuit nobiles regni puellas ibidem edocebat.
Proverbial variant. See Tilley C Latin marginalia : Qualiter Theophilus ad Dionisiam mane rediens affirmauit se Thaisim occidisse; super quo Dionisia vna cum Strangulione marito suo dolorem in publico confingentes, exequias et sepulturam honorifice quantum ad extra subdola coniectacione fieri constituerunt. Latin marginalia : Qualiter Appolinus in regno suo apud Tyrum existens parliamentum fieri constituit. Latin marginalia : Qualiter Appolinus post parliamentum Tharsim pro Thaise filia sua querenda adiit, qua ibidem non inventa abinde navigio recessit. Latin marginalia : Qualiter Nauis Appolini ventis agitata portum vrbis Mitelene in die quo festa Neptuni celebrare consueuerunt applicuit; set ipse pre dolore Thaysis filie sue, quam mortuam reputabat, in fundo nauis obscuro iacens lumen videre noluit.
This is the peripeteia , the moment of reversal, the mysterious turning point of the plot. Now, through the mysterious sanctity of Neptune, the sea becomes the vehicle of his restoration — first of his lost daughter, then of his lost wife, then his kingdoms. Neptune repeatedly tests him but ultimately rewards him with all his domains. Latin marginalia : Qualiter Athenagoras vrbis Mitelene Princeps, nauim Appollini inuestigans, ipsum sic contristatum nichilque respondentem consolari satagebat. Archibald observes: "Gower is alone in introducing Athenagoras for the first time only when Apollonius' ship arrives, thus omitting the auction and his shameful visit to the brothel" Apollonius of Tyre , p.
Latin marginalia : Qualiter precepto Principis, vt Appolinum consolaretur, Thaisis cum cithara sua ad ipsum in obscuro nauis, vbi jacebat, producta est. Macaulay supplies an original example vol.
See Macaulay : "Several of her riddles are given in the original story and he succeeds in answering them all at once. She finally falls on his neck and embraces him, upon which he kicks her severely. She begins to lament, and incidentally lets him know her story. The suggestion contained in ll. Latin marginalia : Qualiter, sicut deus destinauit, pater filiam inuentam recognouit. See Watt Amoral Gower , pp. Latin marginalia : Qualiter Athenagoras Appolinum de naui in hospicium honorifice recollegit, et Thaisim, patre consenciente, in vxorem duxit.
Latin marginalia : Qualiter Appolinus vna cum filia et eius marito nauim ingredientes a Mitelena vsque Tharsim cursum proposuerunt. Set Appolinus in sompnis ammonitus versus Ephesim, vt ibidem in templo Diane sacrificaret, vela per mare diuertit. But Apollonius, warned in dreams, diverted his sails across the sea toward Ephesis, so that he might offer sacrifice in the temple of Diana.
It is noteworthy that Apollonius, having decided to take vengeance upon Dionise and Strangulio 8.
This giving precedence to piety over vengeance results in the recovery of his wife. Latin marginalia : Qualiter Appolinus Ephesim in templo Diane sacrificans, vxorem suam ibidem velatam inuenit; qua secum assumpta in Nauim, versus Tyrum regressus est. Latin marginalia : Qualiter Appolinus vna cum vxore et filia sua Thyrum applicuit. They could come from a traveler, a ballad, or Homer Allegory of Love , pp. Latin marginalia : Qualiter Appolinus a Tyro per mare versus Tharsim iter arripiens vindictam contra Strangulionem et Dionisiam vxorem suam pro iniuria, quam ipsi Thaisi filie sue intulerunt, iudicialiter assecutus est.
Latin marginalia : Qualiter Artestrate Pentapolim Rege mortuo, ipsi de regno Epistolas super hoc Appolino direxerunt: vnde Appolinus vna cum vxore sua ibidem aduenientes ad decus imperii cum magno gaudio coronati sunt. See J. Confessor ad Amantem. Latin marginalia : Confessio Amantis vnde pro finali conclusione consilium Confessoris impetrat.
A defense mechanism of the woman in the RR who perpetually thwarts the ardent lover with aloofness. Guillaume presents Dangier as somewhat gruff and crude but effective in warding off, up to a point at least, male aggression. The comparative form, i. Latin marginalia : Hic super Amoris causa finita confessione, Confessor Genius Amanti ea que sibi salubrius expediunt, sano consilio finaliter iniungit.
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The line resonates with the sentiments at the end of Chaucer's TC , where the narrator, just prior to the dedication to Gower, advises "yonge, fresshe folkes" 5. See Whiting F See Tilley L See also CA 8. Latin marginalia : Hic loquitur de controuersia, que inter Confessorem et Amantem in fine confessionis versabatur. Though Genius has consistently advocated moderation of desire he has, nonetheless, given Amans the opportunity to talk about — even indulge in — his fantasies. But now Genius puts an end to that game.
What is most perplexing is the discovery that both sides of the debate are occurring within him. He is the site of the debate. Here Gower shifts his narrative point of view from that of a dramatic dialogue to that of an onlooking narrator, albeit still in the first person. The shift in tone anticipates the Lover's new perspective which will enable him to disengage himself from his venial infatuation so that his love-wound might be healed.
This beginning of a new objectivity is a crucial step toward the naming of "John Gower" in line , which is further prelude toward his taking control of his life in full honesty. In stede of enke. Gower also uses the stanza in his French poems and "In Praise of Peace. Latin marginalia : Hic tractat formam cuiusdam Supplicacionis, quam ex parte Amantis per manus Genii Sacerdotis sui Venus sibi porrectam acceptabat. In his narcissism Amans imagines that all succeed in love except himself, a position often echoed by lovers in Chaucer e.
As in PF , the problem seems to the lover to be one of Nature's doing, not his own.
In constructing such debates both Chaucer and Gower draw upon sentiments expressed in Alanus de Insulis' De planctu naturae and Jean de Meun's RR , where Nature tires of hearing the lover's complaints and threatens to discipline his unruliness. See also line , where Venus identifies his complaint not simply against her and Cupid, but against Nature also. A common trope. To the heartsore man, all creatures seem to have their mates but him.
Gower echoes PF , where the dreamer knows not whether he floats or sinks line 7 but like an iron between two magnets of equal power lines is trapped in a kind of error line he seems incapable of dealing with. In this stanza Amans sees himself caught in a tale , a fictional circumstance like that of Pan in love. His ficticious comparison of himself with a wrestler, caught in a throw, again echoes PF , where Affrican compares the dreamer seeking to understand love to an observer at a wrestling match, who has opinions on the contest even though he "may nat stonde a pul" line In some traditions the reign of Saturn is affiliated with peace and the golden age.
But seldom is he benevolent to lovers, even though Venus was generated from his desire-inflamed testicles, after he was emasculated by Jupiter.
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The lovers in Chaucer's The Knight's Tale find him to be cold, dry, devious, and malicious; he takes delight in the ruination of hopes and fantasies — "My lookyng is the fader of pestilence" see CT I[A] Latin marginalia : Hic loquitur qualiter Venus, accepta Amantis Sup-plicacione, indilate ad singula respondit. Compare Chaucer's description of her in PF where she rules as "the vicaire of the almyghty Lord" and stimulates creaturely desire as she would "prike yow with plesaunce" PF , lines See White on the naturalness of the elderly Amans, rather than the unnaturalness, as most have argued.
Latin marginalia : Hic in exemplum contra quoscunque viros inveteratos amoris concupiscenciam affectantes loquitur Venus, huiusque Amantis Confessi supplicacionem quasi deridens, ipsum pro eo quod senex et debilis est, multis exhortacionibus insufficientem redarguit.
A dice game, the play of which apparently involved women and verses. See Macaulay's note I am Venus. Not in Whiting or Tilley. The allusion is to Nicomachean Ethics 1.
Fowler, History of English Literature sees in this line the culmination of "a moving, terrible vision, of life threatened by irresistable and irrational impulses," where "individual tales,. None of these old men is, in the end, up to the task of dealing with human nature. Compare 8.