So I think Jeske would have been better served adding a few contemporary case studies of "ordinary" people from the news who find themselves in situations where, say, they could help someone in need or resist temptation to cheat, but they don't. Engagement with the Empirical Literature. Jeske begins her book by sharing about some of her fears growing up when she learned about the Holocaust. In particular, by age fourteen, "instead of being afraid of being a victim, I had become afraid that I carried within me the potential to be a perpetrator" ix.
And a constant theme throughout the book is the potential danger of "evils within" which might become manifest in our behavior and against which moral philosophy can be helpful in working So it was surprising to not find Jeske appealing to the reams of experimental work from social psychology which could have strengthened her claim about the potential for "evils within. As she writes:. We are forced to wonder whether the only thing that keeps us from the evil of genocide or slaveholding is the good fortune of being born into circumstances in which such policies and institutions are frowned upon and punished rather than encouraged or rewarded.
How would each of us fare if we were tested by difficult moral choices 31? As a general matter we do not have to wonder about this or at least not wonder very much. Stanley Milgram's obedience research is one reason why. Under pressure from an authority figure, the majority of participants in the most famous version of Milgram's studies were willing to turn an electric shock dial up to the XXX level and thereby kill an innocent person or so it appeared to them.
Similarly there is ample evidence for how people in general tend to address other "difficult moral choices" for reviews, see Miller , Research on the bystander effect or on academic cheating is relevant to the moral behavior side; research on heuristics and bias is relevant to the moral reasoning side.
The Evil Within
This point ties in naturally to the first concern. For by drawing on this empirical research, Jeske could have made the lessons she wanted to draw from her case studies apart from Bundy more relatable and applicable. In light of the empirical evidence, it becomes much more plausible that we might share some of the same "evil within. The Good Within. My third friendly suggestion would have been to devote some space to the good within as well.
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Just like her negative exemplars, Jeske could have had positive exemplars. Similar to how Jefferson and Speer serve as helpful illustrations for how not to engage in moral reasoning, Gandhi and Lincoln serve as helpful illustrations for how to engage in moral reasoning. They have the added advantage of playing an inspirational role, as we often admire their character and find ourselves being moved and elevated to become more like them. Given the first point above, some of the case studies of good behavior could have been "ordinary" people doing things that were heroic or self-sacrificial.
And given the second point above, appeal could have been made to findings in psychology to show that we also have such capacities for good within us. For instance, the psychologist Dan Batson's work on how empathy often increases helping behavior and does so for genuinely altruistic motivating reasons, would have been a natural source from which to draw Batson The above are intended as three friendly amendments that I might have suggested if I were a reviewer for the press.
Let me end with an objection that I suspect many readers will raise and which I think it would have been wise for Jeske to have addressed preemptively. Moral deliberation of a philosophical nature cannot be avoided, and so we need to educate the young in at least the rudiments of moral philosophy" What if it were to turn out, though, that professional moral philosophers do not show any signs of behaving any better than anyone else, and in particular when compared to professors in other fields?
It seems like that could be a problem for Jeske's optimism about the impact of moral philosophy. So far, the behavioral evidence with respect to moral philosophers is not encouraging, as we know thanks primarily to the studies conducted by Eric Schwitzgebel. He writes that,.
Ethicists do not appear to behave better. Never once have we found ethicists as a whole behaving better than our comparison groups of other professors, by any of our main planned measures.
The Evil Within
But neither, overall, do they seem to behave worse. For the most part, ethicists behave no differently from professors of any other sort -- logicians, chemists, historians, foreign-language instructors Supposing that this research holds up to future replication attempts, I am curious to see what Jeske would say about its implications for her project. These few amendments and wishes are not meant to detract from this engaging and innovative book. I hope it succeeds in drawing many students and general readers into the important world of moral philosophy.
And even more importantly, I hope it succeeds in helping to reduce the evil both within and without. Batson, C. Altruism in Humans. New York: Oxford University Press. Miller, Christian. Moral Character: An Empirical Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Character and Moral Psychology. Schwitzgebel, Eric. Jeske states a variety of different goals for the book: To "enliven and make accessible issues in moral philosophy" x.
To contribute in some way towards the formation of citizens "who can think for themselves, and can enter into civil debates on complex moral issues with others who have opposing positions, citizens who can analyze arguments, and perhaps most important, see when no argument has been forthcoming" xi. To help in "figuring out what we actually believe and why we believe it" and to engage in "self-examination" xii. To recognize that we could "under the 'right' circumstances, become a perpetrator of evil" and to hope that we can "collectively prevent such 'right' conditions from ever being realized" xii.
To identify mistakes in moral reasoning "of which we ourselves are or can be guilty" and to use moral philosophy as a tool "for identifying and avoiding these types of mistakes" Obscura's flashbulb blinds you and stops time, and Sebastian has to distract her for 90 seconds so an emitter can start up.
I ran around the room, baiting her and shooting out her flashbulb to keep her from stopping the clock, and once the timer ran out, the fight was over. I'm sure I'll run into Obscura again at some point in Evil Within 2, but it was really neat to overcome this battle with almost no traditional combat at all. It feels like the development team is making a real effort to diversify the kinds of experiences you'll have in EW2, especially after encountering three different kinds of horror gameplay in such a short demo.
We've already seen one great horror game this year in Resident Evil 7 , and if Tango Gameworks can make good on the promise I saw in this preview, we may have another on our hands. Be respectful, keep it civil and stay on topic. We delete comments that violate our policy , which we encourage you to read.
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Discussion threads can be closed at any time at our discretion. Don't show this again. By Ashley Esqueda. Bethesda Tango Gameworks.
She's pretty A face only a deranged artist could love. Mentioned Above.
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